Archaeological geophysics and kite aerial photography Kevin Barton carries out archaeological geophysical surveys on commercial, research and community projects. He is involved in a number of training workshops for community and school groups. As part of a contribution to the ArchaeoLandscapes Europe Project he is introducing KAP and elevated photography with a pole to community groups.
Imagery acquired in active or passive mode - daytime or night-time. Incident energy from the sun will vary with season or latitude affecting the angle of the sunwith the length of time the sun has been shining and with the angle of the object on the ground.
When analyzing remotely sensed data it is important to consider dates, time of acquisition and relief. The atmosphere may scatter light in the visible band and absorb it in the ultraviolet and infrared bands.
Scattering is caused by particles in the atmosphere reflecting the energy, and the intensity of the scattered EMR depends on the ratio of the wavelength to the size of the particles.
Scattering caused by small particles is selective relative to the wavelength, affecting shorter wavelengths more; scattering related to large particles is non-selective, affecting all wavelengths.
Because of scattering, the energy received by the sensor includes reflections from the atmosphere as well as from the target object.
Complex algorithms are needed to correct this effect. Atmospheric absorption reduces the amount of EMR reaching the sensor in some wavelength bands. Microwave radiations are unaffected by atmospheric conditions, which makes them very useful, especially in cloudy areas such as the tropics.
The amount of energy transmitted or reflected depends on what the target consists of and the thickness of it.
A target also absorbs radiation and this can affect the temperature of the target and thus the amount of energy radiated per second. So all targets or objects in the environment emit and reflect different intensities and types of EMR in different portions of the spectrum, i.
These signature curves are dependent on a number of interactions between incoming radiation and the micro and macro-structure of the matter irradiated. Spectral signatures may vary temporally, e. They will typically consist of four components, i.
There are several ways of classifying sensors-we will describe them under the headings: These include various types of camera which record instantaneously an entire image. These employ a detector electronic sensor which sweeps across a scene in a series of parallel lines collecting data in order to record an image.
In this section we will be concerned with the sensors theoretically-in Section 4. We will concentrate here on points significant to satellite photography since airborne photography is well documented in sister FAO publications Butler et al, and Dainelli, The still photography camera is the best known, simplest and cheapest of all sensors, and still photography produces images having a better resolution than those produced by electronic sensors.Featured Articles.
Evert E. Lindquist's approach to the taxonomic impediment in Acarology: Diversity in specialization through 60 years of systematics research and beyond Systematic and Applied Acarology. Ronald A. Ryder, – The Auk. MORE». The register includes both kite aerial remote sensing specialists and those who use kites in parallel with other aerial platforms.
Geographers study the Earth and the distribution of its land, features, and inhabitants. They also examine political or cultural structures and study the physical and human geographic characteristics of regions ranging in scale from local to global.
A leading text for undergraduate- and graduate-level courses, this book introduces widely used forms of remote sensing imagery and their applications in plant . Course preparation - Suggested books and journals for ecology: Books: Journals: Archibold, O.W.
Ecology of world vegetation.
First edition. natural resources.
Remote sensing (RS) technology has been developed well ahead of GIS technology. Aerial photography is the earliest method of remote sensing and even in today's age of The present study was undertaken to explore the applications of GIS and RS in natural resource management in Bangladesh.