Political and economic effects of mongol rule on china and russia

Probably India did not have a clear local name earlier because, like Chinait seemed to be the principal portion of the entire world, and so simply the world itself. Sumeru or Meruthe only one inhabited with humans identical to us. The only question was how much of it was taken up by India.

Political and economic effects of mongol rule on china and russia

Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. For centuries China had known clique factionalism at court, but this was mostly fought with political means; Mongol factionalism usually resorted to military power.

Militarization gradually spread from the Mongol ruling class into Chinese society, and not a few dissatisfied Chinese leaders established regional power based on local soldiery. The central administration headed by a weak emperor proved incapable of preserving its supremacy.

Thus, the military character of Mongol rule paved the way for the success of Chinese rebels, some of whom came from the upper class, while others were messianic sectarians who found followers among the exploited peasantry.

But the rebel armies who had chosen what is now Nanjing as their base took Dadu in ; the Mongol emperor fled, followed by the remnants of his overthrown government.

The Mongols remained a strong potential enemy of China for the next century, and the Genghis Khan clan in Mongolia continued to regard itself as the legitimate ruler of China.

The century of Mongol rule had some undesirable effects on the government of China: Yet, Mongol rule lifted some of the traditional ideological and political constraints on Chinese society. The Confucian hierarchical order was not rigidly enforced as it had been under the Tang and Song, and the Mongols thereby facilitated the upward mobility of some social classes, such as the merchants, and encouraged extensive growth of popular culturewhich had been traditionally downgraded by the literati.

The Ming dynasty Political history Ineptitude on the throne, bureaucratic factionalism at court, rivalries among Mongol generals, and ineffective supervision and coordination of provincial and local administration had gravely weakened the Yuan government by the s.

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And in disastrous flooding of the Huang and Huai river basins aroused hundreds of thousands of long-oppressed Chinese peasants into open rebellion in northern Anhuisouthern Henanand northern Hubei provinces.

Rebel movements, capitalizing on the breakdown of Yuan control, spread rapidly and widely, especially throughout central China. By the mids, large regional states had been created that openly flouted Yuan authority: A onetime salt trader and smuggler named Fang Guozhen had simultaneously established an autonomous coastal satrapy in Zhejiang.

While Yuan chieftains contended with one another for dominance at the capital, Dadu present-day Beijingand in the North China Plain, these rebel states to the south wrangled for survival and supremacy. Out of this turmoil emerged a new native dynasty called Ming — Orphaned by famine and plague inyoung Zhu was taken into a small Buddhist monastery near Fengyang city as a lay novice.

For more than three years he wandered as a mendicant through the Huai basin before beginning studies for the Buddhist priesthood in his monastery. He quickly made himself the most successful general on the southern front of the rebel Song regime, and in he captured and set up his headquarters in Nanjinga populous and strategically located city on the Yangtze River.

There he began assembling a rudimentary government and greatly strengthened his military power. Between andstill nominally championing the cause of the Song regime, his armies gained control of the vast central and eastern stretches of the Yangtze valley, absorbing first the Han domain to the west of Nanjing and then the Wu domain to the east.

He also captured the Zhejiang coastal satrap, Fang Guozhen. Zhu then announced his intention of liberating all of China from Mongol rule and proclaimed a new dynasty effective with the beginning of The Hongwu emperor, hanging scroll, ink and colour on silk, 14th century; in the National Palace Museum, Taipei.

Courtesy of the National Palace Museum, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China Vigorous campaigning in drove the Mongols out of ShandongHenan, and Shanxi provinces and from Dadu itself, which was occupied by Ming forces on September 14, and simultaneously extended Ming authority through Fujian and Hunan into Guangdong and Guangxi provinces on the south coast.

In —70 Ming control was established in ShaanxiGansuand Inner Mongoliaand continued campaigning against the Mongols thereafter extended northwestward to Haminortheastward to the Sungari Songhua River in Manchuriaand northward into Outer Mongolia beyond Karakorum, almost to Lake Baikal — In operations to the west and southwest, Ming forces destroyed the rebel Xia regime in Sichuan inwiped out major Mongol and aboriginal resistance in Guizhou and Yunnan in —82, and pacified aboriginal peoples on the border between China and Myanmar in The dynastic succession The Ming dynasty, which encompassed the reigns of 16 emperors, proved to be one of the stablest and longest ruling periods of Chinese history.

The Ming emperors probably exercised more far-reaching influence in East Asia than any other native rulers of China, and their attitude toward the representatives of Portugal, SpainRussia, Britainand Holland who appeared in China before the end of their dynasty was a condescending one.

For the first time in Chinese history, the Ming rulers regularly adopted only one reign name nianhao each; the sole exception was the sixth emperor, who had two reigns separated by an interval of eight years.

Because of this reign-name practice which was perpetuated under the succeeding Qing dynastymodern writers, confusingly but correctly, refer to the Wanli emperor, for example, by his personal name, Zhu Yijun; by his temple name, Shenzong; or sometimes, incorrectly but conveniently, simply as Wanli, as if the reign name were a personal name.

His long reign established the governmental structure, policies, and tone that characterized the whole dynasty. After his death in his grandson and successor, the Jianwen emperor, trying to assert control over his powerful uncles, provoked a rebellion on the part of the prince of Yan and was overwhelmed in The prince of Yan took the throne as the Yongle emperor reigned —24 and proved to be vigorous and aggressive.

He subjugated Nam Viet, personally campaigned against the reorganizing Mongols in the north, and sent large naval expeditions overseas, chiefly under the eunuch admiral Zheng Heto demand tribute from rulers as far away as Africa.

Political and economic effects of mongol rule on china and russia

For a century after the Yongle emperor, the empire enjoyed stability, tranquillity, and prosperity.The impact of the Mongol rule in Russia was that the Russian people turned into a highly monastic people, the country was divided and made weaker, it was protected from powerful neighbors such as Hungary and Poland and was kept from western Europe influences such as the Renaissance.

The highly. The Mongol rule politically was far more significant in China than in Russia, because Russians were given more leniency than the Chinese and China experienced greater political intervention, but economically both regions had similar effects as .


The Mongol rule kept Russia isolated from most of Europe, the former falling behind technologically and contemporarily in many ways. Russia stayed medieval for the full years the Mongols held control of their country.

By far the greatest effects of Mongol rule, however, were those resulting from Russia's relative isolation from Christian lands farther west. but their absence severely reduced the options available for Russian political, economic, and intellectual development.

Political and economic effects of mongol rule on china and russia

_____ "The Golden Horde" Mongol (or Tatar) armies swept over China, much of. Emperors of the Sangoku,, the "Three Kingdoms," of India, China, & Japan. India and China are the sources of the greatest civilizations in Eastern and Southern Asia.

Their rulers saw themselves as universal monarchs, thereby matching the pretensions of the Roman Emperors in the West.

The end of Mongol rule

The only drawbacks to their historical priority were that India suffered a setback, when the Indus Valley. Dec 08,  · Compare and contrast the political and economic effects of mongol rule on TWO of the following regions:china and russia and middle east I chose china and russia.

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