Methylphenidate and its effects on the human body

Approved with Reservations Abstract Methylphenidate is a commonly prescribed treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD. However, little is known about its adverse effects on the male reproductive system. We report a year-old male patient whose chief complaint was of delayed puberty. He spoke in a high-pitched voice and complained of lack of body hair, impaired libido, inadequate erectile function, chronic fatigue, and low energy.

Methylphenidate and its effects on the human body

Popular slang terms for prescription stimulants include Speed, Uppers, and Vitamin R. Some people take prescription stimulants to try to improve mental performance. Teens and college students sometimes misuse them to try to get better grades, and older adults misuse them to try to improve their memory.

What Is Methlyphenidate?

Taking prescription stimulants for reasons other than treating ADHD or narcolepsy could lead to harmful health effects, such as addiction, heart problems, or psychosis. How do people use and misuse prescription stimulants? Most prescription stimulants come in tablet, capsule, or liquid form, which a person takes by mouth.

Misuse of a prescription stimulant means: Alternatively, they can crush tablets or open the capsules, dissolve the powder in water, and inject the liquid into a vein. Some can also snort or smoke the powder.

How do prescription stimulants affect the brain and body? Dopamine is involved in the reinforcement of rewarding behaviors.

Norepinephrine affects blood vessels, blood pressure and heart rate, blood sugar, and breathing. Short-Term Effects People who use prescription stimulants report feeling a "rush" euphoria along with the following: What are the other health effects of prescription stimulants?

Repeated misuse of prescription stimulants, even within a short period, can cause psychosis, anger, or paranoia. If the drug is injected, it is important to note that sharing drug injection equipment and having impaired judgment from drug misuse can increase the risk of contracting infectious diseases such as HIV and hepatitis.

Risk of Later Substance Use Some people may be concerned about later substance misuse in children and teens who've been prescribed stimulant drugs to treat ADHD.

Studies so far have not shown a difference in later substance use in young people with ADHD treated with prescription stimulants compared with those who didn't receive such treatment.

This suggests that treatment with ADHD medication does not positively or negatively affect a person's risk of developing problem use. Can a person overdose on prescription stimulants? Yes, a person can overdose on prescription stimulants.

Peer Review Summary

An overdose occurs when the person uses enough of the drug to produce a life-threatening reaction or death read more on our Intentional vs.

Unintentional Overdose Deaths webpage. When people overdose on a prescription stimulant, they most commonly experience several different symptoms, including restlessness, tremors, overactive reflexes, rapid breathing, confusion, aggression, hallucinations, panic states, abnormally increased fever, muscle pains and weakness.

They also may have heart problems, including an irregular heartbeat leading to a heart attack, nerve problems that can lead to a seizure, abnormally high or low blood pressure, and circulation failure.

Stomach issues may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps. In addition, an overdose can result in convulsions, coma, and fatal poisoning.

How can a prescription stimulant overdose be treated? Because prescription stimulant overdose often leads to a heart attack or seizure, the most important step to take is to call so a person who has overdosed can receive immediate medical attention.

First responders and emergency room doctors try to treat the overdose with the intent of restoring blood flow to the heart and stopping the seizure with care or with medications if necessary.

Methylphenidate and its effects on the human body

Can prescription stimulant use lead to substance use disorder and addiction? Yes, misuse of prescription stimulants can lead to a substance use disorder SUDwhich takes the form of addiction in severe cases.

An SUD develops when continued use of the drug causes issues, such as health problems and failure to meet responsibilities at work, school, or home. Concerns about use should be discussed with a health care provider.

If a person develops an SUD and stops use of the prescription stimulant, he or she can experience withdrawal. Withdrawal symptoms can include:Ritalin (generic name: methylphenidate) is a stimulant prescribed to reduce the effects of Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

It is also sometimes prescribed for the treatment of narcolepsy. Sep 12,  · The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational ethylphenidate use do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dosage is unknown. This is because ethylphenidate has a very limited history of human usage.

Methylphenidate: efficacy and adverse effects. Systematic review has shown that the expected effects of methylphenidate exceed its actual effects, as demonstrated in single or double-blind randomised controlled trials. A single dose of methylphenidate has been shown to benefit memory in healthy subjects, as well as increase subjective ratings for interest, excitement and motivation in a .

Note: This document contains side effect information about methylphenidate. Some of the dosage forms listed on this page may not apply to the brand name Ritalin. Along with its needed effects, methylphenidate (the active ingredient contained in Ritalin) may cause some unwanted effects.

At high doses, prescription stimulants can lead to a dangerously high body temperature, an irregular heartbeat, heart failure, and seizures. What are the other health effects of prescription stimulants? Leptin's effects on body weight are mediated through effects on hypothalamic centers that control feeding behavior and hunger, body temperature and energy expenditure.

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