Definition[ edit ] A dowry is the transfer of parental property to a daughter at her marriage i.
Definition[ edit ] A dowry is the transfer of parental property to a daughter at her marriage i. This fund may provide an element of financial security in widowhood or against a negligent husband, and may eventually go to provide for her children.
This practice differs from the majority of Sub-Saharan African societies that practice "homogenous inheritance" in which property is transmitted only to children of the same sex as the property holder. These latter African societies are characterized by the transmission of the " bride price ," the money, goods or property given by the groom or his family to the parents of the bride not the bride herself.
In sparsely populated regions where shifting cultivation takes place, most of the work is done by women. These are the societies that give brideprice.
Boserup further associates shifting horticulture with the practice of polygamyand hence bridewealth is paid as a compensation to her family for the loss of her labour. Close family are the preferred marriage partners so as to keep property within the group. They argue that a major factor in determining the type of marriage transaction is the type of property controlled by the household.
Bridewealth circulates property and women, and is typical of societies where property is limited.
Dowry concentrates property and is found in property owning classes or commercial or landed pastoral peoples. Instead, with marriage, they got a dowry from her parents, which was intended to offer as much lifetime security to the bride as her family could afford.
However, bride price almost always became part of the dowry.
The return of dowry could be disputed, if the divorce was for a reason allowed under Babylonian law. He had no say, however, in its ultimate disposal; and legally, the dowry had to be kept separate for it was expected to support the wife and her children.
If she died childless, her dowry reverted to her family, that is her father if he was alive, otherwise her brothers. If she had sons, they would share it equally. In addition, the wife might bring to the marriage property of her own, which was not included in the dowry and which was, as a result, hers alone.
This property was "beyond the dowry" Greek parapherna, the root of paraphernalia and is referred to as paraphernal property or extra-dotal property. A dowry may also have served as a form of protection for the wife against the possibility of ill treatment by her husband and his family,  providing an incentive for the husband not to harm his wife.
In contemporary Greece, dowry was removed from family law through legal reforms in All the property of the wife which was not dowry, or was not a donatio propter nuptias, continued to be her own property, and was called Parapherna. Two types of dowry were known—dos profectitia and dos adventitia.
All other dos is adventitia. Some scholars believe dowry was practiced in antiquity, but some do not. Historical eyewitness reports, discussed belowsuggest dowry in ancient India was insignificant, and daughters had inheritance rights, which by custom were exercised at the time of her marriage.
Documentary evidence suggests that at the beginning of 20th century bride price, rather than dowry was the common custom, which often resulted in poor boys remaining unmarried.
Lobolo or Lobola (Mahadi in Sesotho; sometimes translated as bride price) is a traditional Southern African custom whereby the man pays the family of his fiancée for her hand in marriage (Compare with the European dowry custom where the woman brings assets). People’s customs go back and forth between bride price and dowry depending on many things. For example, it depends on whether there are more single women or more single men. It can also depend on the power of women in that culture. The custom of dowry, in India, has spread through the hierarchy of social stratification. Several feminists suggest that the practice was initially adopted by the upper castes, then over a period of time it has been passed down into lower castes, and eventually reaches the untouchables, the outcasts. Marriage and European Dowry Custom.
Tambiah claims the ancient Code of Manu sanctioned dowry and bridewealth in ancient India typically in Rohtak and specially in Kadian family, but dowry was the more prestigious form and associated with the Brahmanic priestly caste. Bridewealth was restricted to the lower castes, who were not allowed to give dowry.
He cites two studies from the early 20th century with data to suggest that this pattern of dowry in upper castes and bridewealth in lower castes has persisted through the first half of the 20th century. The findings of MacDonell and Keith are similar to Witzel, and differ from Tambiah; they cite ancient Indian literature suggesting bridewealth was paid even in brahma- and daiva-types of marriage associated with the Brahmanic priestly upper caste.
Dowry was not infrequent, when the girl suffered from some bodily defect. Available eyewitness observations from ancient India give a different picture.
Arrian first book mentions a lack of dowry, They these ancient Indian people make their marriages accordance with this principle, for in selecting a bride they care nothing whether she has a dowry and a handsome fortune, but look only to her beauty and other advantages of the outward person.
He translated many Indian texts into Arabic, as well as wrote a memoir on Indian culture and life he observed. Al-Biruni claimed, The implements of the wedding rejoicings are brought forward.
No gift dower or dowry is settled between them. The man gives only a present to the wife, as he thinks fit, and a marriage gift in advance, which he has no right to claim back, but the proposed wife may give it back to him of her own will if she does not want to marry.
It is also unclear when, why and how quickly the practice of dowry demand by grooms began, whether this happened after the arrival of Colonialism in the 16th century.
Mann  and others    find that dowry was a form of inheritance to daughters. In traditional China, the property owned by a family, if any, was earmarked for equal division or inheritance by sons only.
Dowry was the only way assets were transferred to a daughter.Dec 09, · AFRICAN TRADITIONAL MARRIAGE, THE CHURCH AND WESTERN EUROPEAN MARRIAGE CONCEPT - PART 2. December 9, at PM.
Marriage in Modern Day Western Culture: The groom’s family begins by presenting the dowry and all the other items on the list one, by one. At each stage, the items are .
This article presents a systematic critique of phylogenetic linguistic methodology as applied to social or cultural data. The example that occasions this criticism is a article by Fortunato, Holden, and Mace on marriage transfers (dowry) in the Indo-European areas.
The present article advances certain general proposals for methods of reconstructing the evolution of a custom . Transcript of Marriage Customs and Gender Roles in Medieval Europe.
Marriage Customs and Gender Roles in Medieval Europe No dowry; no marriage. Often the lands in a wife's dowry (money, goods, or estate a wife brings) could provide lots of . The Art of the Dowry Chest.
November/December PDF; Creatives; Then; For centuries across much of the globe, it has been the custom for women to bring with them on marriage not only money, but also linen, personal clothes and jewelry.
especially to France. Chests were commissioned, as were sets of furniture in the European style. The dowry may put into play a marriage that could crumble because of the pedestal that the presumed superior man is put upon.
The Mar and dowry are concepts practiced amongst most Muslim traditions and communities for preparation of marriage. Lobolo or Lobola (Mahadi in Sesotho; sometimes translated as bride price) is a traditional Southern African custom whereby the man pays the family of his fiancee for her hand in marriage (Compare with the European dowry custom where the woman brings assets).