Regulations are issued by various federal government departments and agencies to carry out the intent of legislation enacted by Congress. Administrative agencies, often called "the bureaucracy," perform a number of different government functions, including rule making. Regulations also function to ensure uniform application of the law.
An extensive body of regulatory law concerning the use of property, particularly of land, was developed in the 20th century. The effect of such regulatory law is to protect the property interests of those members of the community whose property would be adversely affected… Defining regulation Regulation has a variety of meanings that are not reducible to a single concept.
In the field of public policy, regulation refers Local government regulation the promulgation of targeted rules, typically accompanied by some authoritative mechanism for monitoring and enforcing compliance.
Accordingly, for a long time in the United States, for example, the study of regulation has been synonymous with the study of the independent agencies enforcing it. In political economyit refers to the attempt of the state to steer the economy, either narrowly defined as the imposition of economic controls on the behaviour of private business or, more broadly, to include other governmental instruments, such as taxation or disclosure requirements.
A third definition of regulation moves beyond an interest in the state and focuses on all means of social control, either intentional or unintentional.
This understanding is commonly applied in anthropologysociolegal studies, and international relations because it includes mechanisms such as voluntary agreements or norms that exercise social control outside the reach of a sovereign state and not necessarily as an intentional act of steering.
Thus, different strands of regulation studies share an agreement on the subject of regulation the statethe object the behaviour of nongovernmental actorsthe instruments an authoritative set of rulesor the domain of application e.
However, they do not necessarily agree on all those elements. The concept of regulation points to the rules that structure the behaviour of individuals within a given context without postulating where the rules come from and how they are imposed.
Regulation and free-market interactions The diversity of meanings of regulation has led to controversy and misunderstandings between scholars, most notably on the topic of deregulation.
In the economic tradition, deregulation refers to the elimination of the specific controls that the government imposed on the market interactions, in particular the attempt to control market access, prices, output, or product quality.
However, if regulation is conceived of more broadly as a form of economic governanceit is difficult to imagine the total elimination of state intervention.
Moreover, the relationship between regulation and competition has transformed. Regulation used to be depicted as the enemy of free-market interactions. However, many scholars came to believe that some regulations facilitate competition whereas other regulations impede competition.
Thus, regulation is not necessarily the antonym of free markets or liberalization relaxation of government controls. In this perspective, many scholars preferred using the terms reregulation or regulatory reform instead of the term deregulation.
Regulation as state activity The theoretical debates around the concept of regulation reflect different disciplines and research agendas and can be broadly divided into approaches to regulation as an act of government and perspectives on regulation as governance.
This particular governmental activity has been studied extensively, including the reasons for regulation and the process by which it is effected. Public versus private interests The original justification of government intervention in economic interactions was public interest.
This perspective considers the market as an efficient allocation mechanism of social and economic welfare while also cautioning against market failures. Market failures commonly include natural monopolies, externalities, public goods, asymmetric information, moral hazardor transaction costs.
Regulation was considered necessary to overcome those difficulties. Theorizing regulation as a tool for overcoming market imperfections, however, has been criticized on a number of points. First, with the evolution of economic theory, several scholars have questioned the understanding of market failure underlying the explanation of government regulation.
Second, economists have pointed out the often considerable transaction costs of imposing regulation, which might make it an ineffective policy tool and harmful to social or economic welfare.
Finally, the market failure approach argues that regulation is put into place with the goal of achieving economic efficiency. However, this makes it hard to account for other objectives, such as procedural fairness or redistribution at the expense of efficiency.
The Chicago school of economicsknown for its advocacy of laissez-faire economicsfocused instead on private interests as the source of regulation. The principal aim of this perspective is to understand how private interests and public officials interact.
A central claim made by theorists following this approach was that policy outcomes are most often contrary to societal or public interest because industry representatives lobby the government for benefits they might gain through protectionism or other forms of economic controls.
Politicians are susceptible to these demands because they are interested in contributions that business actors can offer. Thus, interest groups compete for specific policies in a political market for governmental regulation.
As long as interest groups exist, regulation can be expected, which impedes the achievement of maximal social and economic welfare.Official website of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Updates on Greater Lawrence gas emergency Officials provide up-to-date information on the Sept. 13 gas line emergency.
local government code.
title 7. regulation of land use, structures, businesses, and related activities. subtitle a. municipal regulatory authority. The statutes available on this website are current through the 1st Called Session of the 85th Legislature, August The Texas Constitution is current through the amendments approved by .
Local government in the UK has been “gutted” by government policies reflecting the “dismantling of the social safety net”, a United Nations report has found.
The Federal Register is the main source of regulations for U.S.
The statutes available on this website are current through the 1st Called Session of the 85th Legislature, August The Texas Constitution is current through the amendments approved by . Official website of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Updates on Greater Lawrence gas emergency Officials provide up-to-date information on the Sept. 13 gas line emergency. Proposed RegulationsNotice LGSD Recently Adopted or Amended RegulationsSubject "State and Local and Ad Valorem Tax Fee"Rule entitled "Classification of Real and Personal Property".
government agencies. In , the number of pages in the Federal Register was about 2, Today, the Federal Register is over 80, pages long. The following is the Department´s title II ADA regulation published July 26, , which should continue to be used until March 14,