Exploring theory and practice Curriculum theory and practice. The organization of schooling and further education has long been associated with the idea of a curriculum. But what actually is curriculum, and how might it be conceptualized? We explore curriculum theory and practice and its relation to informal education.
Prior to the introduction of experimental preschool intervention programs in the late s, systematic variation of early childhood programs was minimal.
This situation changed with the advent of early intervention programs for preschool-aged children, including the launch of Head Start in and its continuation into the primary grades in via Project Follow Through.
These two federal programs propelled a national search for early childhood curricula that would effectively prepare children from low-income families to succeed in school. The era was marked by systematic comparisons among a burgeoning array of new curriculum models.
Interest waned in Curriculum models late s and early s, however, as research revealed the limited differential impact of various models on children's Curriculum models achievement. Interest in comparing the effectiveness of curriculum models resurfaced in the late s.
Questions about the public education of 4-year-olds, efforts by national organizations to define appropriate educational practices for young children, and results of longitudinal research that challenged earlier conclusions that varying curricula did not contribute to different child outcomes helped rekindle interest Powell, However, as demand for child care and concern about its impact escalated in response to women's growing labor force participation, interest in differences among early childhood curriculum models diminished once more.
Use of early childhood curriculum models is again on the rise, fueled in part by the growth of state-financed prekindergarten programs. This revival can be attributed to at least four trends: Although they vary in their underlying premises, curriculum models provide well-defined frameworks to guide program implementation and evaluation.
A wide range of early childhood curriculum models exists, but little is known about the number of early childhood curriculum models presently in use or the number of early childhood programs that use them.
Early childhood curriculum models most often are used in center-based settings providing half-day and full-day programs. They are used in public schools, Head Start, and community-based programs.
Consistent with their origin, curriculum models are most often used in programs serving low-income children. Descriptions of these and other early childhood curriculum models, many of which extend into the kindergarten and primary grades, can be found in Epstein, Schweinhart, and McAdoo,Goffin and Wilsonand Roopnarine and Johnson Theories of child development have served as the principal foundation for curriculum model development.
Variations among curriculum models reflect differences in values concerning what is more or less important for young children to learn, as well as in the process by which children are believed to learn and develop.
These variations inform the role of teachers, the curriculum's focus, the classroom structure, and the ways in which children participate in learning. Early childhood curriculum models also vary in terms of the freedom granted to teachers to interpret implementation of the model's framework.
Some curriculum models are highly structured and provide detailed scripts for teacher behaviors. Others emphasize guiding principles and expect teachers to determine how best to implement these principles.
Curriculum models, regardless of their goals and the degree of flexibility in their implementation, however, are designed to promote uniformity across early childhood programs through the use of a prepared curriculum, consistent instructional techniques, and predictable child outcomes. But DAP does not meet all the criteria of a curriculum model.
It was created not as a fully developed curriculum but as a tool to help practitioners and policy makers distinguish between appropriate and inappropriate teaching practices with young children, regardless of the curriculum approach under review.
This same question has been raised regarding the Reggio Emilia approach, an innovative early childhood program from Reggio Emilia, Italy, that has captured the imagination of early childhood educators around the world.
Proponents of the Reggio Emilia approach resist the U. Contrary to the structure imposed by curriculum models, educators in Reggio Emilia are engaged in continual renewal and readjustment informed by reflection, experimentation, and practice. Comparative evaluations now suggest that early childhood curriculum models do affect child outcomes.
Differences in child outcomes among models tend to reflect the intent of the curriculum model being evaluated.The flexible model simply refers to another approach that is derived from other curriculum models.
For example, teachers can modify the specified curriculum elements all /5(17). What is the model curriculum? The model curriculum (version ) includes all standards of the grade-level content organized into five units of study, each with targeted SLOs, intended for .
Curriculum models can be broken down into two very broad models, the product model and the process model.
Luckily, these two models are just as they sound. Luckily, these two models are just as. Grade Four Model Curriculum Overview. View unit yearlong overview here.
The crosscutting concepts of systems and system models are called out as organizing concepts for this disciplinary core idea. Students are expected to demonstrate grade-appropriate proficiency in engaging in argument from evidence. Students are also expected to use this.
Curriculum models can be broken down into two very broad models, the product model and the process model. Luckily, these two models are just as they sound. Luckily, these two models are just as.
A curriculum model is a framework for instructional methods and evaluation criteria. Curriculum models assist educational institutions with implementation of uniform standards by providing educators an example from which to teach.