Some of the laws in the code of Urukagina were: Widows were exempted from taxes,  and "When to the reeds of Enki a person has been brought
Did Betty Friedan cause thousands of women to divorce? Yes, says Coontz, who is also the president of the Council of Contemporary Families and a respected Family Studies professor. On this site, one writer quoted Phyllis Schlafly as saying feminism was the cause of divorce and it sparked hundreds of angry comments.
But feminist reforms gave women the opportunity to get out of unhappy or unfair marriages, and in that sense feminism was the catalyst for many divorces in the s and s. When women no longer had to prove fault to get a divorce, many women whose marriages had been bad for years found it more possible to get a divorce.
Before feminist-inspired reforms, for example, there were 42 states where a homemaker who could not prove fault in divorce and often the criteria for fault were very stringenthad no claim at all on anything her husband had earned during the marriage, even if her housekeeping and child-raising had enabled his career.
Furthermore, once feminist reforms gained women access to better jobs and outlawed discrimination in pay, hiring, and promotions, women who were unhappy in their marriages no longer had to stay married out of dire economic necessity. There was another way that feminism destabilized marriage.
When women went to work in the s, whether from necessity or choice, they began to feel entitled to ask their husband to do more at home, and when their husbands resisted they felt entitled to press the issue, instead of "gracefully giving in," as the advice books of the s had advised wives but not husbands to do in case of disagreement.
So I think that feminism initially led to more outright conflict in marriages because women felt less pressure to simply put up with bad behavior or an unfair division of labor. In your book, you say that feminism still is the best hope for long-term marriages in the modern era, which contradicts what Schlafly believes.
Betty Friedan was very optimistic about the possibilities for love and marriage in a more equal world and many women and men who read her book told me it helped them solve the problems in their marriages.
But other women told me her book or the later growth of the feminist movement gave them the courage to leave a bad marriage. There is no going back to a time when most women will feel compelled to enter or stay in a bad marriage just for economic security or social respectability.
This is, I think, why educated women in America, once the biggest critics of old-style marriage, are now more pro-marriage and more disapproving of divorce than other groups of women who have less experience with egalitarian partners or less clout in getting their needs met in relationships.
We see the same pattern around the world today. In industrial countries where male privilege is still firmly entrenched -- in Spain, Italy, Japan, and South Korea, for example -- women are delaying marriage longer than in America, and often resisting childbearing as well. They are less likely than American women to say that marriage is a good deal.
Why do men find it threatening that women may have economic power or want equality? Increasingly, men are realizing exactly that -- that having an educated, economically independent partner reduces the pressure on them to be the sole provider. Many men are also beginning to understand that participating in housework and childcare can be rewarding.
But 50 years ago, most men were still very attached to the idea of having a wife who was dependent upon them both economically and intellectually. Back infemale college graduates were much less likely to marry than women who did not graduate from college, and women with a PhD were especially likely to remain single.
Today, however, the difference in marriage rates for college graduates or high-earning women and their less-educated or lower-earning counterparts has almost disappeared. Marriage rates have fallen since the s for everyone except women with PhDs -- they are the only group of women who are more likely to be married today than they were in One fact I found fascinating in the book is that the average age of marriage during the s was Yes in the s, the age was 20 which is a historical fluke.
A the end of the 19th century, the average age of marriage was Today the average first marriages occur between 26 and 28 and a little later in urban areas. What is one of the myths you debunk?
That Friedan caused male-female conflict. Friedan said something very interesting in her book. She said that women often misidentified their discontents. They thought they needed a new house, or a new husband.Mar 17, · Which brings me to that headline: that the economic emancipation of women is the most important single fact of the past century.
That past really was a different place. We can argue if we want to about whether that economic emancipation is complete (the famous womens' 77 cents to mens' dollar, or is it a motherhood pay gap . A collection of scholarly works about individual liberty and free markets.
A project of Liberty Fund, Inc. Facsimile PDF MB This is a facsimile or image-based PDF made from scans of the original book.
Kindle KB This is an E-book formatted for Amazon Kindle devices. EBook PDF KB This. OverviewThe achievement of complete (a) economic, (b) social, (c) political and (d) religious equality of women with men, an aspiration whose realization in the course of the twentieth century has been gradual, varied and incomplete.
Perhaps the most crucial agent of women's emancipation has been the process of industrialization. Put diﬀerently, educated women, being better able to survive divorce, are less likely to be trapped in a bad marriage.
In the model, marital bliss (i.e., love in marriage) ﬂuctuates over time, which causes. Timeline of women's legal rights (other than voting) represents formal changes and reforms regarding women's rights.
That includes actual law reforms as well as other formal changes, such as reforms through new interpretations of laws by srmvision.com right to vote is exempted from the timeline: for that right, see Timeline of women's srmvision.com timeline excludes ideological changes and. The goal of this site is to help women survive divorce and rebuild their lives, offering help for every stage of the process.
You'll find comprehensive information on the legal, financial, and emotional aspects of ending your marriage, as well as articles for starting over and rebuilding your life.